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Freeman v. Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago

United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit

June 14, 2019

Shaka Freeman, Plaintiff-Appellant,
v.
Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, Defendant-Appellee.

          Submitted May 30, 2019[1]

          Appeal from the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division. No. 17 C 4409 - Harry D. Leinenweber, Judge.

          Before WOOD, Chief Judge, and Easterbrook and ROVNER, Circuit Judges.

          Per Curiam

         Shaka Freeman, an African-American man who suffers from alcoholism, sued the Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, his former employer, for firing him because of his race and disability. The district court dismissed his complaint for failure to state a claim. See Fed. R. Crv. P. 12(b)(6). We conclude, however, that Freeman has pleaded enough to state his discrimination claims, and so we vacate the judgment and remand for further proceedings with respect to those issues. We affirm with respect to Freeman's contention that the District fired him pursuant to a policy that is unlawful under Monell v. Department of Social Services., 436 U.S. 658, 694-95 (1978).

         For purposes of this appeal, we assume the truth of the allegations in Freeman's complaint and its attachments. See Carmody v. Bd. of Trs. of the Univ. of III, 747F.3d 470, 471 (7th Cir. 2014). Freeman began working for the District in May 2015 as an operator of a treatment plant. The District is a municipal corporation. See 70 ILCS 2605/1. Freeman's job involved the collection and transportation of temperature-sensitive water samples across the mile-long plant. Although operators typically transport these samples in District-owned vehicles, the job description does not require a driver's license. In his first year, Freeman, like all new hires, was a probationary worker, employed at will. Id. at 2605/4.11. Once he completed his first year, the District would be able to fire him only for cause.

         About three months after Freeman was hired, he was arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol and his license was suspended for six months. Freeman began seeing a substance-abuse counselor for his alcohol problem. As required by his job contract, he also told the District about the license suspension and his counseling. To ensure that concerns about his alcohol problem or license suspension did not interfere with his job, he did three things: (1) he bought a bike and a cooler to transport samples around the plant, (2) he asked if he could use a John Deere go-cart, which does not require a driver's license on private property, and (3) he applied for an occupational driving permit from the state that would permit him to drive a company vehicle while working. (The state authorized his permit conditional on the District's approval, but the District refused to grant his request.) The District fired Freeman while he was on probation, asserting "unsatisfactory performance." Freeman alleges that this explanation is pretextual; the District's real reason for firing him he said, was because of his race and because it regarded him as an alcoholic.

         Freeman sued the District for employment discrimination. Its path in the district court was a rocky one, and the case presented some managerial challenges for the district court. At the outset of the suit, the court recruited an attorney to represent Freeman. That relationship broke down and the attorney was excused; three additional attorneys followed. Each one moved to withdraw because of disagreements with Freeman about litigation strategy. Second, while proceeding pro se, Freeman filed three sprawling amended complaints, each over 70 pages. On the District's motions, the judge dismissed two of these filings for failure to comply with the requirement under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 8(a) calling for a "short and plain statement of the claim." Freeman withdrew the third iteration.

          His operative complaint-the fourth amended version- raises claims of race and disability discrimination and of retaliation, in violation of 42 U.S.C. §§ 1981, 1983, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, id. § 2000e-2, and the Americans with Disabilities Act, id. at § 12112. He alleges that the District fired him "due to his race" (African-American) and "disability" (alcoholism). He next asserts that the District failed reasonably to accommodate his alcoholism by refusing to let him travel around the grounds of the plant without using a car. He also accuses the District of retaliating against him by firing him after he sought reasonable accommodations. Finally, he alleges that the District fired him under an unconstitutional policy.

         The district court dismissed Freeman's complaint with prejudice for failure to state a claim. Its opinion began with Freeman's assertion that the District fired him because of his alcoholism. The court reasoned that Freeman pleaded neither that his alcoholism caused "substantial limitations" to major life activities nor that it caused his firing. Next, the court said, Freeman's retaliation and reasonable-accommodations claims failed because he had requested accommodations only for his license suspension, not his alcoholism. Turning to Freeman's race-discrimination claims under § 1983 and Title VII, the court ruled that Freeman "fail[ed] to plead the final element"-that he was treated less favorably than at least one colleague who was not African-American. Freeman had no claim under § 1981 because, the court explained, that statute generally does not allow a private right of action against public actors. Finally, the court concluded that Freeman had not stated a "policy" claim under Monell because he had not identified the policy or practice that he challenged.

          On appeal Freeman (still acting pro se) contends that his complaint sufficiently states each of his claims. He argues that the district court erroneously "judg[ed] the truth of [his] factual allegations/' including his allegation that the District's decision to fire him for "unsatisfactory performance" was pretextual.

         We conclude that the district court erred by demanding too much specificity in Freeman's complaint. A plaintiff alleging race discrimination need not allege each evidentiary element of a legal theory to survive a motion to dismiss. Swierkiewicz v. Sorema, N.A., 534 U.S. 506, 510-14 (2002); Ta-mayo v. Blagojevich, 526 F.3d 1074, 1081 (7th Cir. 2008). Rather, to proceed against the District under § 1983 or Title VII, Freeman needed only to allege-as he did here-that the District fired him because of his race. Tamayo, 526 F.3d at 1084; see also Bennett v. Schmidt 153 F.3d 516, 518 (7th Cir. 1998) ('"I was turned down for a job because of my race' is all a complaint has to say."). His failure to plead the evidentiary element about comparable coworkers, therefore, is not fatal.

         Similarly, Freeman has stated a claim for disability and retaliation claims under the ADA. The general rule in federal court calls only for notice pleading, see Erickson v. Pardus, 551 U.S. 89, 93 (2007), but some theories of recovery require more detail than others in order to give the required notice. That is why we noted in Tate v. SCR Medical Transportation, 809 F.3d 343, 345 (7th Cir. 2015), that a plaintiff advancing a claim under the ADA must allege that he is disabled but, with or without reasonable accommodation, can still do the job. Normally he also must allege what exactly makes him disabled.

         The district court here faulted Freeman for not alleging that his alcoholism ...


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