Searching over 5,500,000 cases.


searching
Buy This Entire Record For $7.95

Download the entire decision to receive the complete text, official citation,
docket number, dissents and concurrences, and footnotes for this case.

Learn more about what you receive with purchase of this case.

Tyner v. United States

United States District Court, N.D. Indiana, Hammond Division

April 12, 2019

TOMMY TYNER, Petitioner,
v.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Respondent,

          OPINION AND ORDER

          Joseph S. Van Bokkelen, United States District Judge.

         Tommy Tyner filed a pro se motion under 28 U.S.C. § 2255 (DE 210) to have his conviction under 18 U.S.C. § 924(c)(1)(A) vacated. He has also submitted several filings he describes as motions pursuant to Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 15(d) and 15(a)(2) (DE 236, 239, and 253). Rather than treating these filings as requests to amend his § 2255 motion, the Court deems them notices of supplemental authority and, as such, will consider them in deciding the motion.

         The questions before the Court are whether it must hold an evidentiary hearing on his motion, and, if no evidentiary hearing is required, whether Tyner is entitled to any relief under § 2255.

         A. Background

         Tyner, along with three co-defendants, was charged by indictment with: conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute cocaine under 21 U.S.C. § 846 (Count 1); attempt to possess with intent to distribute cocaine under 21 U.S.C. §§ 841 and 846 (Count 2); conspiracy to interfere with commerce by threat or violence under 18 U.S.C. § 1951(a) (Hobbs Act robbery) (Count 3); attempt to interfere with commerce by threat or violence under 18 U.S.C. § 1951(a) and aiding and abetting under 18 U.S.C. § 2 (Count 4); conspiracy to use a firearm in furtherance of a crime of violence and a drug trafficking crime under 18 U.S.C. § 924(o) (Count 5); and possessing firearms in furtherance of a crime of violence and a drug trafficking crime under 18 U.S.C. § 924(c)(1)(A) and aiding and abetting under 18 U.S.C. § 2 (Count 6). Tyner alone was charged in Count 9 with possession of firearms as a felon. Tyner filed a notice of intent to plead guilty to Counts 3 and 4 (conspiracy and attempt to commit Hobbs Act robbery) without the benefit of a plea agreement. He later entered into a plea agreement in which he agreed to plead guilty to Count 6 in exchange for the Government's agreement to dismiss Counts 1, 2, 5, and 9 against him and to make a binding recommendation for a sentence of five years (60 months) on Count 6, to run consecutively to a seven-year (84 months) sentence on Counts 3 and 4, and ten years of supervised release with no early termination of supervision.

         The Court accepted Tyner's guilty plea to Counts 3 and 4 at a change of plea hearing held on October 17, 2011. A second change of plea hearing, this time with respect to Count 6, was held on April 4, 2012. At the second hearing Tyner agreed that all the applicable provisions of the plea agreement as to Count 6 applied to Counts 3 and 4 as well.

         In his notice of intent to plead guilty to Counts 3 and 4, during his change of plea hearing regarding those counts, and during his second change of plea hearing, Tyner admitted to the following facts: From around June 22, 2010, through July 1, 2010, he conspired with co-defendants Ricky Stokes and Clinton Davis III to use force and threats of force to take cocaine from individuals they believed were engaged in narcotics trafficking. They planned to travel to a drug stash house and forcefully take the cocaine from anyone present.[1] To make final preparations for the robbery, on July 1, 2010, they drove to a staging area in Gary, Indiana, where they were arrested and guns were recovered, including a Mossberg shotgun that Tyner admitted to possessing. He further admitted that if the robbery had been successful, it would have affected interstate commerce.

         Tyner was sentenced on June 13, 2012. The Court's judgment was entered on June 19, 2012. Tyner didn't appeal. He now asserts that on the basis of the Supreme Court decision in Johnson v. United States, 135 S.Ct. 2551 (2015), the Court must permit him to withdraw his guilty plea to Count 6, and must dismiss that Count against him because, pursuant to the logic of Johnson, conspiracy to commit Hobbs Act robbery is not a crime of violence. He also claims the Court made procedural errors in imposing the conditions of his supervised release, that some of the conditions of supervision and the ten-year period of supervision that were a part of his sentence run afoul of Seventh Circuit decisions, and that he received ineffective assistance of counsel because his attorney did not object to the errors. Finally, in his reply brief, he claims for the first time that Count 6 of his indictment is flawed because it charges more than one offense in a single count, and that his trial counsel was ineffective in negotiating his plea agreement and failing to attack the legality of the ATF sting operation.

         B. Discussion

         A movant under § 2255 is entitled to an evidentiary hearing “[u]nless the motion and the files and records of the case conclusively show that the prisoner is entitled to no relief.” 28 U.S.C. § 2255(b). Because Tyner has not raised any factual claims which would require an evidentiary hearing for resolution, no hearing is required. See Perrone v. United States, 889 F.3d 898, 909-10 (7th Cir. 2018).

         The timeliness of each claim asserted in a § 2255 motion must be assessed separately. Davis v. United States, 817 F.3d 327-28 (7th Cir. 2016). Under § 2255(f)(3), any claim that is based on Johnson, the case on which Tyner relies, must have been filed within one year of the date on which the right he asserts was first recognized by the Supreme Court and “made retroactively applicable to cases on collateral review.” Johnson was handed down on June 26, 2015. In Welch v. United States, 136 S.Ct. 1257, 1265 (2016), the Supreme Court recognized that Johnson has retroactive effect in cases on collateral review. Tyner filed his motion on May 17, 2016. According, to the extent that Tyner's claims turn on a right first recognized in Johnson, they are timely. Claims that do not arise from the holding in Johnson are not timely.

         In Johnson, the Supreme Court found that the residual clause of 18 U.S.C. § 924(e)(2)(B)(ii), the Armed Career Criminal Act (“ACCA”), defining “violent felony” is unconstitutionally vague. Id. at 135 S.Ct. at 2557. The residual clause in § 924(e)(2)(B)(ii) is similar to the residual clause of 18 U.S.C. § 924(c)(3)(B), defining “crime of violence” under § 924(c)(1)(A), the offense Tyner was charged with in Count 6.

         Plainly, Tyner's claims concerning procedural errors in imposing his conditions of supervised release, ineffective assistance of counsel, the validity of some of the conditions of supervision, the length of the term of supervision, whether Count 6 was improperly charged, and the legality of the stash house sting do not turn on the holding of Johnson. Accordingly, § 2255(f)(3) doesn't give Tyner a new one-year period to collaterally attack his sentence on any of those bases. Because these claims were not raised within one year of the date the judgment against him became final in 2012, as § 2255(f)(1) requires in these circumstances, they are untimely and the Court will not consider them.[2]

         The crime to which Tyner pleaded guilty in Count 6, 18 U.S.C. § 924(c)(1)(A)(i), provides: “[A]ny person who, during and in relation to any crime of violence or drug trafficking crime . . . possesses a firearm” must be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than five years. Under § 924(c)(2), a drug trafficking crime includes any felony punishable under the Controlled Substances Act, 21 U.S.C. § 801 et. seq. Section 924(c)(3) defines a crime of violence as any felony offense that “(A) has as an element the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against another, or (B) that by its nature, involves a substantial risk that physical force against the person or property of another may ...


Buy This Entire Record For $7.95

Download the entire decision to receive the complete text, official citation,
docket number, dissents and concurrences, and footnotes for this case.

Learn more about what you receive with purchase of this case.