United States District Court, Northern District of Indiana
Appeal from the United States Bankruptcy Court, Northern District of Indiana, Fort Wayne Division
OPINION AND ORDER
Joseph S. Van Bokkelen, United States District Judge.
This matter is before the Court on the appeal of Defendant/Appellant and bankruptcy debtor Rachel Elizabeth Roberts (“Debtor”) from a final judgment of the Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Indiana, Fort Wayne Division.
Debtor filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy on March 18, 2011. In the course of her duties, Plaintiff-Appellee and bankruptcy trustee Yvette Kleven (“Trustee”) asked Debtor to turn over to her: (1) a bank statement showing the balance in Debtor’s savings account on March 18, 2011, and all transactions from February 18 through March 18, 2011; (2) copies of Debtor’s 2010 state and federal income tax returns; and (3) receipts or other documentation verifying how Debtor spent her 2010 income tax refunds. The Trustee first requested these items at the first meeting of creditors-the 341 meeting-conducted on April 29, 2011. When they were not received, she sent a letter dated August 5, 2011, requesting them, without results.
On May 9, 2012, still not having received the information, the Trustee filed a motion to turn over property, requesting the three items listed above, as well as $99.33, representing the non-exempt pre-petition portion of her income tax refund for 2011. A hearing was held on the motion on June 25, 2012, but just before the hearing, Debtor’s attorney told the Trustee that he agreed she was entitled to what she had asked for and would enter into an agreed order for the turnover of the items. On June 29, 2012, the bankruptcy judge ordered the parties to file the agreed order within twenty-one days. The Trustee prepared an agreed order and sent it to Debtor’s attorney on July 5, 2012. When he had not responded by November 16, 2012, she wrote to Debtor’s attorney again. Once again, she received no response, and on May 9, 2013, she once again asked that the turn over motion be set for a hearing. This time the Trustee and Debtor signed an agreed order that Debtor would provide the Trustee with all the items requested, which was filed on May 21, 2013, and approved by the bankruptcy judge on June 27, 2013.
When Debtor had not complied with the agreed order by August 12, 2013, the Trustee filed an adversary proceeding to revoke Debtor’s discharge pursuant to 11 U.S.C. § 727(d)(3), which provides that the trustee request revocation of a discharge if the debtor has refused to obey a lawful order of the court. The Trustee also sought a money judgment of $99.33. After the adversary proceeding was filed, Debtor sent the Trustee a check for $99.33 and copies of her 2010 tax returns. However, she did not provide a bank statement showing the balance of her savings account as of March 18, 2011, and showing the transactions in that account from February 18, 2011, through March 18, 2011, until the day before the trial on the Trustee’s adversary proceeding.
The bank statement showed that Debtor had received a tax refund of $6, 569.10 on March 4, 2011, before her March 18 bankruptcy filing, and that she had made four separate withdrawals from the account between March 8 and March 17, 2011, totaling $6, 400.
The matter was tried to the bankruptcy judge on January 15, 2014. The Trustee testified as to the efforts she had made to secure the requested items and as to Debtor’s withdrawals from her savings account. She asked the bankruptcy judge to revoke Debtor’s discharge for requiring her to spend three years and much time and energy chasing after information she should have received before or at the first meeting of creditors. She also asked for a money judgment of $6, 400.
Debtor testified that she had only been able to get a copy of the requested bank statement in the past few weeks because her credit union had absolutely refused to give her the information. She claimed the bank manager was upset with her because she had defaulted on a loan. She explained that she withdrew the money from her account because she believed the credit union was stealing from her to cover the loan she had defaulted on. She transferred most of the money to her stepfather’s account and used it to live on and for repairs on a new home she had recently moved into. She stated that she might have some receipts showing how the money was spent. The money was in her stepfather’s account on March 18, 2011, when she filed bankruptcy. She testified that she did not believe she had to turn the money over to the Trustee because she was advised that it was exempt. She never listed her tax refund on her bankruptcy schedules.
In his closing argument, the attorney for the trustee moved the court to amend the pleadings to conform to the evidence to allege 28 U.S.C. § 727(d)(1) as grounds for revoking Debtor’s discharge. Under § 727(d)(1), a discharge must be revoked if the discharge was obtained through the fraud of the debtor.
Following the presentation of evidence and argument by the parties, the bankruptcy judge ruled from the bench, revoking Debtor’s discharge and awarding the Trustee a money judgment of $6, 400. In addition to relying on 28 U.S.C. § 727(d)(3)-refusal to obey a lawful order of the court-the bankruptcy judge found that the evidence supported revoking Debtor’s discharge under § 727(d)(1) and (d)(2). Section 727(d)(2) requires revocation if the debtor acquired property of the estate and knowingly and fraudulently failed to report the property or deliver it to the estate.
B. Standard of Review
The standard of review on appeal from a bankruptcy court judgment is set out in Federal Rule of ...