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Executive Management Services, Inc. v. Fifth Third Bank

United States District Court, S.D. Indiana, Indianapolis Division

September 22, 2014



MARK J. DINSMORE, Magistrate Judge.

This matter comes before the Court on Fifth Third Bank's ("Defendant") Motion to Compel Plaintiffs' and David Bego's Discovery Responses. [Dkt. 91.] For the following reasons, the Court hereby GRANTS IN PART and DENIES IN PART Defendant's motion.

I. Background

Plaintiffs Executive Management Services, Inc. (EMS), EMS Florida, Inc. ("EMS Florida"), and D&B Ventures, LLC ("D&B"), and Air Golf II, LLC ("Air Golf") (collectively "the EMS Plaintiffs") filed this breach of contract suit against Defendant on April 8, 2013. [Dkt. 1 at 1.] Around January 24, 2006, the EMS Plaintiffs and Defendant entered into an interest rate swap agreement ("Agreement"), which was memorialized on an International Swap Dealers Association Master Agreement form. [Dkt. 1-2 at 1.] Due to the credit crisis beginning in 2008, the Agreement between the EMS Plaintiffs and Defendant was not successful, and Plaintiffs thereafter filed this suit. [Dkt. 1 at 10-11.]

In September of 2013, Defendant served each of the four Plaintiffs with its First Requests for Production (RFP), to which Plaintiffs responded in December of 2013. [Dkt. 93 at 2.] However, Defendant did not find these responses, nor Plaintiffs' supplemental responses, sufficient, and in April of 2014 the Court granted Defendant leave to file a motion to compel Plaintiffs to produce certain tax returns, financial statements, and documents referring or relating to any loan applications from the relevant time period. [ Id. at 3-4.] Additionally, Defendant served a non-party request on David Bego, President and CEO of each of the four Plaintiff entities, in order to subpoena some of the requested tax returns, which Mr. Bego allegedly has in his possession. [ Id at 3.] Plaintiffs, on behalf of David Bego, also objected to the production of any documents in response to Defendant's non-party request. [ Id. ] Thus, Defendant filed its motion to compel discovery responses from each of the four entity Plaintiffs as well as Mr. Bego [Dkt. 91], which motion is now before the Court.

II. Discussion

Rule 37 permits a motion to compel a required disclosure upon "evasive or incomplete disclosure, answer, or response." Fed.R.Civ.P. 37(a). A required disclosure, as broadly defined by Rule 26, includes any information that a party may use to support its claims. Fed.R.Civ.P. 26 (a)(1)(A). "For good cause, the court may order discovery of any matter relevant" to the issues of the case. Fed.R.Civ.P. 26 (b)(1). "Thus, the scope of discovery should be broad in order to aid in the search for truth." Kodish v. Oakbrook Terrace Fire Prot. Dist., 235 F.R.D. 447, 450 (N.D. Ill. 2006) (citing to Tice v. American Airlines, Inc., 192 F.R.D. 270, 272 (N.D.Ill.2000)). Ultimately, this Court has "broad discretion in discovery matters, [including a] motion to compel discovery." Packman v. Chicago Tribune Co., 267 F.3d 628, 646 (7th Cir. 2001) (citing Kalis v. Colgate-Palmolive Co., 231 F.3d 1049, 1056 (7th Cir. 2000)).

When a party raises objections to discovery requests, the objecting party bears the burden of proving that a discovery request is improper. See, e.g., Janssen v. Howse, 09-CV-3340, 2011 WL 2533809 (C.D. Ill. June 27, 2011); Cunningham v. Smithkline Beecham, 255 F.R.D. 474, 478 (N.D. Ind. 2009); BASF Catalysts LLC v. Aristo, Inc., 2:07-CV-222, 2009 WL 187808 (N.D. Ind. Jan. 23, 2009). When the objecting party raises nonspecific, boilerplate objections without clearly explaining how the request is objectionable, courts should overrule the objections in favor of broad discovery, pursuant to the federal rules. Novelty, Inc. v. Mountain View Mktg., Inc., 265 F.R.D. 370, 375 (S.D. Ind. 2009) (boilerplate objections without explanation are deemed waived); McGrath v. Everest Nat. Ins. Co., 625 F.Supp.2d 660, 671 (N.D. Ind. 2008) (the objecting party must specify why the discovery request is improper); In re Aircrash Disaster Near Roselawn, Ind. Oct. 31, 1994, 172 F.R.D. 295, 307 (N.D. Ill. 1997) (the federal discovery rules should be construed liberally and broadly). The Court now addresses Plaintiffs' objections to Defendant's discovery requests.

A. Relevance

Plaintiffs first argue that the requested tax returns, financial statements, and documents referring or relating to their loan applications are not relevant to the matter, as they have "not claimed to be unsophisticated regarding standard commercial banking, " only that they "did not understand the risks of the swap transactions." [Dkt. 98 at 2-4 (emphasis in original).] In response, Defendant asserts that Plaintiffs' distinction between general investor sophistication and experience with the derivative market in particular is improper, and "the issue is whether EMS and its principal, Dave Bego, were sophisticated and experienced enough to read and understand contracts with banks-including disclaimers of fiduciary relationships-and to understand banking relationships." [Dkt. 99 at 2.]

When the relevance of discovery is challenged, it is the objecting party's burden to establish not only that the requested discovery is irrelevant, but that the requests are "not reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence." See, e.g., Sanyo Laser Products Inc. v. Arista Records, Inc., 214 F.R.D. 496, 499 (S.D. Ind. 2003). Additionally, the objecting party must establish that "the requested discovery is of such marginal relevance that the potential harm occasioned by discovery would outweigh the ordinary presumption in favor of broad disclosure." Id. Here, Plaintiffs do not argue that the discovery requested is not relevant to the issue of whether they are sophisticated consumers of banking services. [ See Dkt. 98.] Instead, Plaintiffs parse words in an attempt to distinguish experience with complex derivative instruments from sophistication in banking services, but the Court is not convinced. Experience in telecommunications, for example, does not necessarily become irrelevant when a new device is introduced to the market, and neither does experience in banking necessarily become irrelevant when new investment opportunities are created. A consumer that is sophisticated in any kind of investment banking would surely know that there are risks involved in investment in the markets, let alone investment in a new market through instruments with which they are unfamiliar. Thus, the Court overrules Plaintiffs' objections regarding the relevance of their and David Bego's tax returns, financial statements, and documents referring to or relating to their loan applications.

B. Overbroad, Unduly Burdensome, and Duplicative

Plaintiffs also object to each of Defendant's three discovery requests on the ground that they are "overly board and unduly burdensome." [Dkt. 93 at 4.] Because Plaintiffs have made no further explanation as to how the requests are overbroad, their objection is deemed waived. See Novelty, 265 F.R.D. at 375. Plaintiffs' additionally argue, on behalf of David Bego, [1] that Defendant's third party requests for production are overbroad because they "seek[s] tax returns spanning 14 tax years, " from 2000 through "present." [Dkt. 93 at 8.] In its motion to compel, Defendant argues that "documents produced by Plaintiffs suggest that Bego had experience with interest rate swaps at least as early as 2001." [ Id. at 10.] In response, Plaintiffs make no further argument on David Bego's behalf, save the relevance argument. [ See Dkt. 98 at 4-5.] Thus, the Court finds that the third party requests made to David Bego for the production of tax returns beginning in 2000 are not overbroad. However, it is not necessary to extend Defendant's requests at issue to include documents "to the present" year when the parties' banking relationship ended in 2011. Thus, any tax returns, financial statements or documents referring or relating to any loan applications from 2012 to present need not be produced by either the Plaintiffs or third party David Bego.

Although no explanation was given regarding their unduly burdensome objection either, a district court "must consider relevant objections, " such as undue burden, regardless of the whether the objection would otherwise be waived. Cont'l Ins. Co. v. Chase Manhattan Mortgage Corp., 59 F.Appx. 830, 839 (7th Cir. 2003). Here, it would not be an undue burden to produce the Plaintiffs' financial statements and tax returns, as they have already been prepared and should be on file and readily accessible, causing Plaintiffs' to spend little time or money in their production. As for the documents "referring or relating to any loan application, " the Court does agree that documents merely "referring" to any loan application made between 2004 and 2011 could present an undue burden on Plaintiffs. However, documents "relating to" such loan applications, like the financial statements and tax returns, should be on file and readily available for production. Thus, ...

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