United States District Court, Northern District of Indiana, South Bend Division
RACHEL A. WHITAKER and RICHARD L. DUNKIN, Plaintiffs,
APPRISS, INC., Defendant.
OPINION AND ORDER
ROBERT L. MILLER, JR., JUDGE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
Appriss, Inc. asks the court to dismiss the claims of Rachel A. Whitaker and Richard L. Dunkin for failure to state a claim. Appriss says the sale of police department motor vehicle accident reports doesn’t violate the Driver’s Privacy Protection Act, 18 U.S.C. §§ 2721-2725, because the reports are police department records, not motor vehicle records. Ms. Whitaker and Mr. Dunkin contend that the DPPA regulates the disclosure of personal information taken from motor vehicle records and the accident reports contain such information.
To survive a Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss, a complaint must allege facts that, if accepted as true, “state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face.” McReynolds v. Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc., 694 F.3d 873, 885 (7th Cir. 2012) (quoting Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 570 (2007)). “A claim has facial plausibility when the plaintiff pleads factual content that allows the court to draw the reasonable inference that the defendant is liable for the misconduct alleged.” Id. (quoting Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662, 678 (2009)). When evaluating a motion to dismiss, the court accepts the complaint’s factual allegations as true and draws all possible inferences in the plaintiff’s favor. Lake v. Neal, 585 F.3d 1059, 1060 (7th Cir. 2009).
Ms. Whitaker and Mr. Dunkin were involved in separate car accidents. For each accident, police officers completed an Indiana Officer’s Standard Crash Report that included personal information about Ms. Whitaker and Mr. Dunkin that could have been found on their driver’s licenses or car titles. Police officers in Indiana, and six other states, use Appriss’s software to complete accident reports. Appriss is the exclusive supplier of the accident reports, and the public can buy individual reports or a subscription service from Appriss’s website -- www.buycrash.com. About a month after the accidents, Ms. Whitaker and Mr. Dunkin received unsolicited letters from lawyers seeking to represent them in personal injury cases, and Ms. Whitaker got an unsolicited letter from a chiropractor offering his services. Appriss sold the accident reports from the car crashes that Ms. Whitaker and Mr. Dunkin were involved in to the third parties who then commercially solicited them.
Appriss argues that police department motor vehicle accident reports are police department records, not motor vehicle records protected by the DPPA. Ms. Whitaker and Mr. Dunkin argue that the DPPA protects their personal information derived from motor vehicle records. Both parties are right; neither argument carries the day.
The Driver’s Privacy Protection Act of 1994 prohibits the “release and use of certain personal information from State motor vehicle records.” McCready v. White, 417 F.3d 700, 701 (7th Cir. 2005) (quoting the caption of 18 U.S.C. §§ 2721-2725). The DPPA provides injured parties with a private right of action. 18 U.S.C. § 2724. The DPPA’s general prohibition is as follows:
A State department of motor vehicles, and any officer, employee, or contractor thereof, shall not knowingly disclose or otherwise make available to any person or entity: (1) personal information . . . about any individual obtained by the department in connection with a motor vehicle record, [except as allowed by the fourteen permitted uses found in subsection (b)]. . . .
18 U.S.C. § 2721(a)(1). The statute lists fourteen permissible disclosures of personal information, such as for use by a government agency when carrying out its functions. Maracich v. Spears, 133 S.Ct. 2191, 2195, 186 L.Ed. 2D 275 (2013); 18 U.S.C. § 2721(b)(1)-(14). Neither party asserts that an exception applies to the disclosure at issue. The DPPA defines “motor vehicle record” to be “any record that pertains to a motor vehicle operator’s permit, motor vehicle title, motor vehicle registration, or identification card issued by a department of motor vehicles.” 18 U.S.C. § 2725(1). Appriss argues that an accident report isn’t one of the documents listed in the statute and doesn’t pertain – “belong as a part, member, accessory, or product, ” Lake v. Neal, 585 F.3d 1059, 1061 (7th Cir. 2009) – to any of those documents, so it’s not a motor vehicle record.
Appriss compares the accident reports to the voter registration form in Lake v. Neal, 585 F.3d 1059 (7th Cir. 2009), that the plaintiff completed at the same time that he applied for a driver’s license from the state’s department of motor vehicles. Id. at 1060. The department of motor vehicles forwarded his voter registration form to the board of election, and later, another person obtained personal information about the plaintiff from the board. Id. The plaintiff alleged that the board violated the DPPA by disclosing his personal information. The court of appeals held that a voter registration form – filled out separately and at the applicant’s option – didn’t pertain to any of the statute’s listed documents, and – but for the fact that it was filled out simultaneously to the driver’s license application – had nothing to do with a motor vehicle record. Id. at 1061.
Ms. Whitaker and Mr. Dunkin don’t argue that the accident reports meet the statutory definition of a motor vehicle record. They contend that the DPPA protects not only records, but also information associated with those records. The court agrees. The accident report doesn’t have to fall within the statutory definition of a motor vehicle record to contain information the DPPA protects. The DPPA prohibits the disclosure of personal information “obtained by the department [of motor vehicles] in connection with a motor vehicle record.” 18 U.S.C. § 2721(a). To this extent, the court agrees with Ms. Whitaker’s and Mr. Dunkin’s contention that the DPPA protects records and information associated with those records.
The parties agree that the DPPA considers certain information set forth in the accident reports, such as driver identification numbers, names, and addresses, to be personal information. See 18 U.S.C. § 2725(3) (personal information is “information that identifies an individual, including an individual’s photograph, social security number, driver identification number, name, address (but not the 5-digit zip code), telephone number, and medical or disability information . . . .”). The parties dispute whether the DPPA protects the information at issue in this case.
Appriss concedes that some of the information in the accident reports is information also contained in motor vehicle records and could be obtained from those records. But many documents -- telephone directories, voter registration rolls, litigation records, arrest records, websites, personal checks, and publicly filed deeds and mortgages – contain names and addresses. Appriss argues that the DPPA doesn’t protect the information if it could also be obtained from sources other than motor vehicle records. The court can’t agree. Although many different public documents might disclose names, addresses, and even driver identification numbers, the DPPA nonetheless specifically protects this personal information if the state department of motor vehicles derived the information in connection with a motor vehicle record and then disclosed it. See Dahlstrom v. Sun-Times Media, LLC, No. 12 C 658, 2013 WL 6069267, at *2 (N.D. Ill. Nov. 18, 2013) (“[T]he press can publish that an officer has brown eyes without violating the DPPA as long as it did not obtain that information from the officer’s motor vehicle record.”) certificate of appealability granted, No. 12 C 658, 2014 WL 1677099 (N.D. Ill. Apr. 24, 2014).
Ms. Whitaker and Mr. Dunkin contend that the personal information in the accident reports was derived from motor vehicle records, so the DPPA protects the accident reports. They argue that the DPPA’s caption – “Prohibition on release and use of certain personal information from State motor vehicle records” 18 U.S.C. §§ 2721-2725 – supports their contention that the DPPA protects the personal information in the accident reports that was taken from motor vehicle records.
In Senne v. Village of Palatine, Illinois, 695 F.3d 597 (7th Cir. 2012), a village police officer placed a parking citation on the windshield of the plaintiff’s vehicle in public view on a public way. Id. at 600. The citation displayed the vehicle owner’s name, address, driver’s license number, date of birth, sex, height, and weight. Id. The village police department got this information from a database originating with the state’s department of motor vehicles. Id. at 599. The plaintiff alleged that the village’s placement of his personal information on the parking ticket when that information was obtained from motor vehicle records violated the DPPA. Id. The court of appeals noted that the initial disclosure of the information by the department of motor vehicles to the village police department was a permissible use of the personal information under the DPPA and the parties didn’t challenge that disclosure. Id. at 602. But the second disclosure – the village police officer placing the parking ticket on the windshield of the car – was a plausible claim that the village police officer’s action violated the DPPA. Id. at 609. The parking ticket, issued by the village police department, wasn’t a motor vehicle record, but its disclosure of ...