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United States v. Houston

United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit

March 20, 2014

DENNIS HOUSTON, Defendant-Appellant

Argued January 28, 2014.

Appeal from the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division. No. 12 CR 424 -- Rubén Castillo, Chief Judge.

For United States of America, Plaintiff - Appellee: Angel M. Krull, Office of The United States Attorney, Chicago, IL.

For Dennis Houston, Defendant - Appellant: Joshua B. Adams, Law Offices of Joshua B. Adams, P.C., Chicago, IL.

Before WOOD, Chief Judge, and EASTERBROOK and KANNE, Circuit Judges.


Per Curiam.

Dennis Houston, who was sentenced to 216 months in prison for possessing and transporting child pornography, argues that the district court clearly erred in applying a five-level increase to his total offense level based on the finding that he sexually abused a minor. See U.S.S.G. § 2G2.2(b)(5). Houston contends that the court should not have relied on the statements of the child victim, given inconsistent

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evidence in the record over the date when the girl informed her parents of the abuse. Because the judge's finding is well supported by the record, we affirm the judgment.

Houston, then age 44, was caught in 2012 with more than a thousand pornographic images of children on his computer; he pleaded guilty to possessing and transporting child pornography. See 18 U.S.C. § 2252A(a)(1), (a)(5)(B). Based on a total offense level of 42 and criminal history score of I, the probation officer calculated a guidelines sentence of 360 months, which was also the statutory maximum for the two counts. See 18 U.S.C. § 2252A(b)(1), (b)(2). Houston objected to all of the increases in his offense level, but the only argument he raises on appeal concerns the five-level increase tied to the sexual abuse of a minor. See U.S.S.G. § 2G2.2(b)(5).

At the sentencing hearing, the government presented evidence to show that on at least four occasions in the mid-2000s Houston sexually abused a preschool-aged neighbor when she came over to play with one of his daughters. The primary piece of evidence was a videotaped police interview from 2007 in which the girl--then five years old--described how Houston touched his " private" to her " private," made her touch his " private," and then covered her stomach, crotch, and hands in a substance coming out of his " private" that she referred to as " wax." She said that Houston covered her in " wax" more than once and added that the episodes took place on the sofa in Houston's basement, on a sofa in his living room, in his laundry room, and on his bed. She identified Houston by his first name, knew his daughters' names, and described his appearance. She stated that these events happened when she was three or four years old and said that she told her mother about them. To show that Houston had a sexual interest in ejaculating on young children, the government provided a chat log found on his computer in which he asked someone to fulfill his " fantasy" by ejaculating on a picture of an unidentified young girl. The prosecutor also noted that Houston's court-appointed psychologist diagnosed him with pedophilia based on his reported attraction to children under the age of thirteen. Further, as set forth in the government's undisputed version of the offense, a twelve-year-old girl said that Houston exposed himself in front of her and a three-year-old boy reported that someone in Houston's home licked his penis.

Houston countered that the five-year-old girl's statements were unreliable based on two discrepancies in reports that the government provided as evidence. First, the reports contained conflicting dates about when the girl was said to have informed her mother: According to a police report (from 2007), the girl informed her mother of the abuse in 2006, but an FBI report (from 2012, after Houston's arrest) states that the mother learned of the abuse in 2005. Second, the reports contained different reasons for why the parents delayed in reporting the abuse. Houston insisted that " [the mother's] story changes completely" in explaining the delay. In particular he pointed out that the parents declined to press charges at the time of the girl's interview " based on concerns for [her] mental health and well being," but that during the mother's interview with the FBI she attributed the delay to " family issues" and described how her husband's drinking problem worsened as she and her husband debated whether to report the abuse to the police.

The district court accepted the government's version and found that Houston had sexually abused a minor on multiple occasions. The ...

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